Down Bald Hill Road to Elbow Lake and Moonshine Valley (June 21, 1964)

Down Bald Hill Road to Elbow Lake and Moonshine Valley

(Tacoma News Tribune and Sunday Ledger   June 21, 1964)

(Author’s note:  This article on the Bald Hills was part of series articles written for the Ledger which detailed interesting day trips for it readers.  The other two articles from four decades earlier provide an explanation for why an area in the Bald Hills was known as Moonshine Valley.)

FOUR CORNERS, Thurston County — Follow the Bald Hill Road to Elbow Lake, where true-blue Washingtonians laughingly camp in the rain . . . and on to Moonshine Valley, a hollow of enchantment beside the Deschutes River and once a haven for nudists.

Moonshine Valley owes its name to a thirstier, rugged era when homemade stills flourished on creeks and springs back in the tall firs and the wild brush. Later it was promoted as a spa for naked sun-worshippers, who collected from all over the country (some arriving by airplane on a private field) to convene in the raw.

But now some 130 acres of romantic Moonshine Valley are converted into a family resort, for weekend and summer pursuit of outdoor recreation. And it well could become a Palm Springs of the Northwest.

The Bald Hills are south of Tacoma, by way of Roy and McKenna, and the country is blessed with famous fishing lakes … such as Clear, known the state over for its plentiful trout, and Lawrence, which opened for the season this morning after a poison treatment restocking by the Game Department.

And the best sources of information, advice, history and what the future holds for this “last frontier” is philosopher-grocer Tom McMonigle . . . proprietor of the Four Corners General Store.

The most popular item in the store is free … a three – page Mimeographed map showing the routes to the many attractions of the Bald Hills. Tom said local teen-agers produced the map for him . . . and he estimates that already this year he has handed out 10,000 copies. (If this is hard to believe, don’t forget that the Game Department reported more than 10,000 fishermen hit Clear Lake the day it opened in April.)

A native of the area, Tom frankly admits he makes his living from the users of the lake resorts . . . and that the rains of tune are an economic menace and that his disposition is a weather vane, cloudy or sunny, depending on the complexion of the sky over his beloved home country.

The day of our visit was excessively wet. But the grocer, sensing a return of the sun, treated us with only respect and courtesy, We’ll say right here that Tom McMonigle puts out the best free map to be found at Four Corners.

And we ventured forth down the rainy road . . . met a 13-year-old capitalist. Young Ken Bean raises worms, sells them to fishermen and puts the money away for a college education. He is an orderly, determined captain of industry, who covers his worm bins with straw in the winter . . . and stands guard spring and summer against marauding birds.

He entered the worm business three years ago. Last season he had terrific competition. But he expanded his inventory to include red gold worms imported from Texas and which turn different colors under water, proving irresistible to finny creatures.

Ken has taken in his sister, Barbara, 11, as a partner.

Last spring their mother, Mrs. M. W. Bean, promised them $10 each if they could earn $100 apiece from their worms. She had to pay up. And Ken’s money went into a fund for the time he enters college to become a mathematician or a doctor.

The future Dr. Bean uses two front-yard signs to attract customers. If he is at home, his signs reads: “Honk horn for service.”

But if he is away for any reason, he relies on an honor system . . . and his sign announces: ”Self Service Worms—20 cents a dozen.”

Waiting for the Mail

Our first report on the good bass, crappie and perch fishing to be enjoyed’ at Elbow Lake came from two freckle-faced boys on bicycles. Brothers Pete and Roy Ehrlich, 13 and 11, were waiting for the mailman to arrive at their box on the Bald Hill Road.

“You can get about 18-inch bass out of Elbow,” Pete informed me.

They would have told us more, except that the mailman—a woman—suddenly appeared . . . and they were fast on their way home with the day’s delivery.

We turned off to Elbow Lake on the Piesner Road . . . near two old school buildings no longer in use . . . with broken windows and grass growing out of the roof shingles . . . the grounds haunted with ghostly figures playing hopscotch and kickball.

And we reached the lake by a meandering route and strict adherence to the several signs . . . and we could see fishermen in yellow slickers out on a raft. We were at Elbow Lake Park, a public recreation area provided by the Weyehaeuser Co.

Soon we were sipping coffee at a camp site occupied by two Tacoma families. They were there with tents and badminton equipment and spears for hunting long-legged frogs at night . . . and their own recipe for fun in a leaky outdoors.

The husbands—Don Lemon and Harold Greenwood — had gone fishing, hopeful of repeating their previous day’s success. The wives had the coffee pot on. Several boys were in a car, playing cards.

“There’s a technique to camping in the rain,” Mrs. Lemon confided. “You go to the library and get a stack of books like this’—she moved her hands far apart—”and you wear the latest from Dior, rubber boots, old riding clothes, you know.”

And Mrs. Greenwood chimed in: “Our tent smells like I don’t know what . . . Wet tennis shoes, I guess.”

Hypnotizing Frogs Mike Lemon, 17, explained how frogs are hunted for the legs that many people relish as a delicacy. A strong light is worn on a head band and focused on the frogs … which become hypnotized and are easy targets for long, three-pronged spears.

Despite the steady drizzle, Mrs. Lemon urged Don to set up the badminton net.

It was a magnificent display of the tenacity of the female spirit. We were ashamed for every complaint we had ever voiced about the blankety-blank weather.

We intend to travel up the Bald Hill Road again—under a blazing sun. But we don’t expect to find Moonshine Valley any more peaceful and hauntingly beautiful than it appeared with gem-like raindrops on the green slopes and in the branches of fir and cedar and spruce. Bob Thurston and Mike Johnson are the developers of the valley, nestled between Clear Lake and Deschutes Falls. When the property was a nudist colony a fence blocked the passage of unwelcome visitors

Now there are signs everywhere, pointing the way to Moonshine Valley, newly opened as a conventional resort . . . with a stone swimming pool . . . cabins and tent sites . . . a hall for snacks and dancing . . . and access to fishing in the river.

Thurston calls the Bald Hills country a “last frontier.” He and Johnson are betting on the increased leisure time of the workingman and on Tacomans’ and Seattleites’ great zest for the outdoors.

They have many definite plans and many sketchy dreams.

“Dan Still Remembered” November 27, 1977

Dan Still Remembered

The Daily Olympian November 27, 1977

Yelm- Most towns erect monument to city founders, mayors or other notable community leaders. Not Yelm. It has a monument to a man who came to town as a hobo and left 33 years later as a beloved legend.

Dan Maslowski wasn’t a typical tramp. Nor was he a city founder, but many say he was the top citizen of Yelm. He was a respected and trusted community member. His memory is lodged in the warmest spot of many a heart. Maslowski earned himself a niche as Yelm’s Mr. Clean.

Townsfolk who remember the old hobo have their favorite storied to tell. And all have nothing but good things to say about their old Dan. Some resent him being called a tramp.

The drinking fountain monument is in front of Yelm’s fire hall on Main Street. It reads, “Keep Yelm Clean. In memory of Dan Maslowski-1971.” It was placed there a year or so after old Dan’s death in July of 1971.

Yelm grocer and former state legislator Hal Wolf, and the late Bob Ellis, who once owned Bob’s Tavern, gathered donations for the monument. They sold bumper stickers that read, “Keep Yelm Clean for Dan.” Ellis’ son-in-law Jim Forrester, present owner of Bob’s Tavern, said some people thought the stickers were in referent to Gov. Dan Evans. It became something of a joke to keep people straightened out on the matter.

Ellis and Mel Johnson spent hours installing the fountain monument. “There’s not many tributes in this town and this is the only one on Main Street. Nobody else got into the hearts of people here,” Wolf declared.

Wolf was a young man when Maslowski hit town. He remembers his dad and others liked to buy Maslowski’s breakfast because they were so pleased with the way he kept the town clean. “He read a lot and sometimes gave the impression that he’d once had a formal education,” Wolf recalled.

“Since old Dan died, we’ve had a real problem in trying to keep the town clean. We’ve never solved it. Whenever something needed to be done for the city, Dan would do it. This town hasn’t been the same without him. There aren’t any hobos left today.”

As the story goes, Maslowski left his Wisconsin home at the age of 13 because of family problems. He rode the rails across America until finding Yelm in 1938. He once told Ellis, “The first night I got to Yelm they didn’t throw me in the can. So I just stayed. It was the first place where they didn’t throw me in the can.”

His first night in town, he bummed a handout at the door of Martin Gruber, then co-owner of the Gruber-Docherty Lumber company and later treasurer of Thurston county. But that was the last time he begged for food. After that he swept floors, chopped wood, cut grass, and did scores of other odd jobs about town. In return people gave him meals of maybe some change.

At first he slept in a little house behind Bruber’s, then city hall was his home until Ellis gave him a room in his hotel. In the early 1960’s, Ellis tore down the top story of the hotel and turned the first floor into a tavern and a Laundromat. Maslowski squeezed into a small room between the two.

That’s where he lived until his death except for three months he lived at the McKenna rest home.

As the years went by street cleaning became his forte. “He’d be up at four nearly every morning sweeping the streets whether it was rain, snow, or shine,” recalled Forrester.

“The town has never been as clean since old Dan died. He swept parking lots, porches, sidewalks and not only Main Street but every street in town.”

Others said he could often be seen outside shaking a fist at a horse rider going through town, if the horse dirtied the pavement.

After many years, the city finally put him on the payroll for his cleaning efforts. He got $25 per month.

Forrester said Maslowskit was good at sweeping out Bob’s Tavern until carpet was put in. “He didn’t like carpet because he couldn’t sweep it.”

“There’s not been many in the world that could smoke a cigar like Dan. He was the most contented, leisurely and relaxed smoker. But he had to quit drinking during his last three years because the doctor told him his heart was going band. He obeyed doctor’s orders.”

Mrs. Evelyn Fall, who remarried after the death of her husband Bob Ellis, remembers she and Ellis were newlyweds’ when Maslowski found Yelm. “He stacked wood and picked strawberries for my mom and dad and all the little kids loved him. If everyone was as good as old Dan was, this would be a great world,” she said.

Maslowski was completely trustworthy. The Ellis’s often would send him to the bank with their earnings for the day. It was common to see him talking to himself while working and he loved cats and plants.

He served many a night as town watchman and was especially helpful in that capacity during Yelm Prairie Days in the summers.

City Clerk Roger Eide remembers giving Maslowski free haircuts at his barbershop. “I’d say one on the house and sometimes he’s pay and sometimes he wouldn’t,” Eide said with a grin. “He very seldom would work for anyone who wouldn’t give him a meal. And he’d eat enough for a week.”

Eide wasn’t the only one to mention Maslowski’s appetite. The fact that the old boy could eat is something all comment on.

Mayor Lora B. Coates remembers Maslowski helper her and her husband harvest Christmas trees. “He was certainly a legend. He was as typical a small town character as you could find. But he was part of a vanishing breed.”

Maslowski died of a heart attack July 26, 1971. The town was hut down for the hour of his funeral.

A Daily Olympian story about the funeral hit national and international news wires. Mrs. Frieda Young, of Selkirkshire, Scotland, though she might be related to Maslowski and sent a letter of inquiry to Yelm. Mayor Coates sent all the information she had about Maslowskit to Mrs. Young.

The two corresponded for about a year, and Mrs. Young last wrote that she positively felt she was related to him.

Mrs. Connie Turner is one Yelm resident who still thinks often of old Dan. She visits his resting place in the Yelm cemetery at least once a year. She planted shrubbery on the grave since Maslowski liked “anything growing.” And she still takes care of the grave.

Mrs. Turner says Maslowski reminded her of her own father. So she sort of adopted him as a second father. One New Year’s Eve she got him on the dance floor, despite heavy bets that he wouldn’t. Most of the time he shied away from females.

It’s been said that no one ever captured the heard of Yelm as did Dan Maslowskit. And no one has since.

Yelm in the Sixties – Pictures From YHS Annuals

Introduction:  YHS annuals provide a visual view of Yelm in the sixties.  Excuse the quality of the photos.

1963 snow scene

D & H service station

1964 Four Corners

1966 Marching past NVN office

1968-Gordon's Meats

1969-Hal & Bob Wolf in front of their store

1967-homecoming parade

1965 homecoming parade

Usual & Accustomed Places V – Confrontations at Frank’s Landing & the Puyallup River


This part of the story has to do with the fishing rights struggle which took place at Frank’s Landing on the Nisqually River. This includes the story of how the lands of the Nisqually people were lost during World War I. The story also demonstrates the types of tensions which arose over fishing rights in Washington in the sixties.


For the next part of the story we have go back seventy years to the American involvement in the First World War. Some of the most serious violent incidents during the fishing disputes have their origins in the actions of the federal government in 1917. In 1916 two Tacoma businessmen went to Washington D.C. and offered the War Department 70,000 acres of land for a new fort (now Ft. Lewis) in south Pierce County. Besides their patriotic fervor about training an army division to fight in Europe, these men understood the economic benefits that thousands of soldiers stationed in their region would bring to the city of Tacoma. The county required a vote on providing bonds to buy the land for the base, and anyone who opposed the project was overrun by the war fever that was spreading across America. In an editorial (Jan. 17, 1917) in an Olympia newspaper the case for the base was expressed in the following way:

In a stirring address before a Tacoma audience, General J. Franklin Bell, commander of the western district of the United States Army, took occasion to scorn the ignorant opponents of the army project (Ft. Lewis) who placarded Tacoma with scurrilous posters libeling and defaming the army and the American soldiers. General Bell referred to the men who spread the posters about as “red anarchists.” He might have applied still stronger terms and have fallen far short of expressing the extreme disgust and contempt with which law abiding, respectable citizens regard the slander mongers who are vilifying the United States Army.

As a matter of fact, the army post will be no more of a benefit to Tacoma than it will to the soldiers. The American Lake location is one of the most desirable in the country. The close proximity of Seattle and Tacoma to the post adds to the advantages. But there are still other reasons why the soldiers quartered at the post will derive great benefits. The American soldiers are a sober, law abiding lot of men. Most of them, as General Bell has said, come from farms. They take their service seriously. They are seeking to improve themselves.

The blatant, lying agitators who have been seeking to defeat the army post project by defaming the United States Army cannot be prosecuted, but it is a shame that such an element of undesirables should be permitted to associate with decent people.

The Washington legislature facilitated the county purchase of the land by passing a bill which made it compulsory for Pierce county to sell bonds to raise not more than two million dollars for the purchase of the 70,000 acres. (That was not the only issue on the legislature’s agenda in early 1917. Another bill introduced that year prohibited “miscegenous marriages between whites and persons of as much as one-fourth Negro, Japanese and Chinese blood.” ) After a vote in which the pro-base side recorded a 5 to 1 margin of victory, the county began condemnation hearings. The county used the right of eminent domain, which compensated property owners for their lands which were being taken over by the county. The condemnation hearings worked in the following manner. The county had a value attached to each parcel of land, usually based on property tax evaluations. In the case of Paul Seifert he asked $112,000 and the county offered $36,000. A condemnation jury heard arguments for each figure and awarded a settlement price. In the case of Seifert he received $40,00 for his 3,300 plus acres, but this was unusual because the juries usually awarded valuations equal to or below the county’s figure. Getting a fair market value for one’s land in 1917 was very difficult. One writer summarized it this way: “All kinds of pressure was used and many who tried to get a fair value were accused of being pro-German; and this and the war-time necessity had great influence, and one had to be very courageous to fight against war-time spirit.” Slowly the area for Ft. Lewis expanded. One of its neighbors was the Nisqually Reservation which at that time was located on both the Pierce and Thurston County sides of the river.

This changed after a visit of General Burr to south Pierce County in December 1917. The general made it clear to the local Bureau of Indian Affairs agent that “the safety of the Indians during hours of target practice would require the removal of the Indians . . . to avoid ricocheting shells; . . . the entire reservation would have to be abandoned during those hours.” This amounted to thirty-three hundred acres north of the Nisqually River. Constitutional law, however, makes it very clear that a county has absolutely no power to condemn and take over Indian land (which has the status of federal territory). The Indian agent at the scene suggested to the Army that they lease the territory from the Nisqually tribe and then return it after the war. He did not rule out altogether any type of deal for land which was so important to the Nisqually tribe. Before any official agreement could be reached the Army decided to act and ordered all of the Indians north of the river to leave their homes and settle elsewhere. Some left immediately and those that resisted were loaded onto wagons and carried away. Some received only a few hours notice of their removal and others had little to time to prepare their new houses and lived in makeshift shacks along the Nisqually River.

Next began a series of deals which can only be labeled as illegal. The county began “condemnation” hearings on the reservation lands on the Pierce County side of the river. The U.S. Interior Department (in which the Bureau of Indian Affairs is located) issued a protest against this. Meanwhile the “condemnation” hearings continued and the Army agreed to “buy” the land from the Nisquallies. Vine Deloria, an Indian writer, summarized it this way:

The Army in effect purchased the Nisqually land long after it had removed the Indian owners, by allowing a local court to transfer the land titles to Pierce county, which in turn was bound by agreement to cede the Army several thousand acres in return for the construction of a fort near Tacoma. At best, it was a shadowy transaction, unworthy of the United States Government, but under the circumstances, not unlikely.

The compensation to the impacted tribal members provided by the federal government in April 1918 was $75,000. After the war the government re-examined the issue of the “land grab” and decided that further $85,000 in compensation was necessary. By this time, however, things had changed dramatically for the Nisqually Indians. Tribal members from the condemned land were scattered around the Pacific Northwest, one side of the river was now under the jurisdiction of Ft. Lewis, and the state began interpreting the “condemnation” of tribal lands as a reflection of the fact that the Nisquallies had “ceased to exist,” apparently ignoring tribal lands in Thurston County. Game Department officials began harassing Nisqually fishermen.

One of the more important developments for our story had to do with Willy Frank, Sr. Willy Frank had owned more than 200 acres in the condemned part of the reservation. When the Army moved him from his land, he received money as compensation. With that money he was able to buy six acres of land in Thurston County on the west bank of the Nisqually River. This site became known as Frank’s Landing. Willy Frank, Sr. always maintained that this land had the same status as reservation land (meaning it was not subject to state laws) because it was a direct compensation for the reservation land he lost during the war. The state of Washington never saw it that way and consistently battled with Willy Frank and his son, Bill Frank, Jr., over fishing and supposed violations of state fishing laws.

Time and again Indians set their nets in the Nisqually River at the landing, claiming that this was reservation land. Time and again state officials seized the nets and boats or arrested the fishermen. Time and again Bill Frank, Jr. maintained that this was reservation land. A state official responded, “They’ve got all kinds of room on the reservation if they’ll just fish there. We have no intention of bothering any Indians fishing on the reservation, and we’ve strictly adhered to that.”

The same state official concluded that the fishing disputes were just another part of the civil disobedience movement sweeping the nation. He said, “We don’t need that type of thing here. There’s a legal way to handle this…. All citizens have the same amount of privilege. The Indians should be governed by the laws the same as anyone else.

Bill Frank, Jr. stated, “This is one big merry go round. It’s making us sick. We’re going to shoot them [state officials] next time.”
This exchange took place in 1965. By 1968 there were signs posted at the landing: “Private-Federal Trust Property,” and “No Trespassing Under Provision of Federal Trespass Law.” Hank Adams, one of the leaders of the fish-in movement, issued a “Citizen’s Letter to His Governor” dealing with the status of Frank’s Landing. It stated:

The Armed Guards are under specific instructions to use weapons only to prevent the specific actions by State enforcement officers to

The tensions had continued to mount during this time. Patrol boats of the Game Department patrolled the river and State Patrol cars were stationed on nearby roads. Search lights were beamed into the houses at the Landing in the middle of the night. Dozens of arrests were made, some for illegal fishing and others for obstructing justice. Film crews from Seattle and London showed up to record the ongoing story. Dozens of non-Indians arrived to show support for the fishermen. Black activists and University of Washington students arrived to show their solidarity with the Native Americans. Also, according to the state “a bunch of hippies” had arrived to show support. Threats, epithets, and taunts were often exchanged by those involved. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) was now handling the defense of many of the Indian defendants. A headline in the Seattle Times summarized the situation: “Nisqually Fishing Confrontation Now 46 Days Old.” Pictures of an armed Indian were run with the above story in the Times.


A more serious confrontation took place along the Puyallup in September, 1970. In July of that year a group of Puyallup Indians and their supporters organized an encampment on what they claimed was a piece of the old Puyallup Reservation which had not been wiped out by the suspicious land deals that had extinguished, in the mind of the state, their reservation. Calling itself the “Medicine Creek Nation” the Puyallups proceeded to set nets from this site where the Burlington Northern Railroad bridge crosses the river. From July on the Indians fished while negotiations continued between themselves and the state on the subject of an Indian fishing season on the river. During August some arrests were made and following that Native Americans began patrolling the banks armed with rifles. Tensions increased. The encampment held over forty people at this time.

On September 4th the Police Chief of Tacoma, Lyle Smith, visited the camp and said that the firearms had to be put away. Railroad workers had complained about weapons being pointed in their direction, and the railroad blamed the protesters for shooting at a switching engine. On September 9th, the day after negotiations between the Game Department and Indians broke down, police and game officials, some dressed in battle gear and armed with rifles and tear gas, positioned themselves around the encampment. Using a loudspeaker the police warned the Indians, “Lay down your arms and peaceably leave the area or be placed under arrest,” because the encampment was an unlawful assembly. The Indians countered with their own bullhorn telling the police to stay off their land. One said, “If anyone lays a hand on that net, they are going to get shot,” and another pronounced, “We’re serious. There are no blanks in our guns.” Soon a Game Department patrol boat approached the net tied to one of the bridge supports. The Indians fired several warning shots at the boat and the police moved in. Using billy clubs and tear gas the police and game wardens began arresting those present, beating those who resisted, and chasing those who tried to run away. An Indian threw a Molotov cocktail and the railroad trestle started burning. Smoke and tear gas filled the air. Eventually over fifty people were arrested, and the camp was destroyed. Headlines read “Gas, Clubs Route Indian Fishermen,” “Bullets Fly But Net is Seized,” and “Bulldozers Bury Remains of Medicine Creek Nation.”

In Washington, state game officials were pleased, as were their sport fishing supporters. People who were sick and tired of violence and supposed lawlessness thought this was a victory for “law and order.” The state had won the battle, but in doing so had started losing the war for public opinion. Photographs and news footage of the incident appeared on the national news. Vine Deloria, a guest on a national evening television talk show, spent a half hour discussing the situation and showing pictures of the police attack. The armed situation at Frank’s Landing, the continued fishing in spite of state policies against it, and now this major incident were all showing that the issue needed to be resolved. The state and the Indians were not getting this accomplished for a number of reasons. The federal government decided to step in.

  1. trespass upon this property for the purposes of making an arrest or serving a state-issued warrant of arrest; and
  2. trespassing for the purpose of confiscating the fishing net emplaced in the river off Frank’s Landing and affixed to it.

If state enforcement officers attempt to proceed upon the property of Frank’s Landing after being warned against trespassing the weapon will be used against trespassers. Likewise, if the net is emplaced in the water off Frank’s Landing, the weapon will be used against any State officer placing a hand on that net.

Indian Stereotypes Used in the Press

Stereotypes in the Media

An article about the Shaker Church near Olympia:

Olympian Helps Indian Men of the Shaker Church Daily Olympian 2-27-17

An Indian has no imagination and therefore must have noise and realities to move his spirit, according to Milton Giles, of this city, the only white member of the Shaker faith in the state of Washington. . . .

Walter Dick, Charley Johnson, Fred Schuster and Antoine Peppomal, Puget Sound Indians, living on the Klamath reservation, were ordered off the Indian reservation by the superintendent, who alleged that they made so much noise with their yelps, ringing of bells and other religious services that it was impossible to have them around.

Milton Giles was consulted and immediately [asked] to get the banishment repealed.

[Giles was quoted as saying] “The superintendent was afraid that they would be carried away by their religion and rise up against the whites. That is foolish. The Shaker Indians are well educated. They write me letters on the typewriter all the time. They are progressive. They have their automobiles. They would not revolt against the white man, for they appreciate what he has done for them.”

A Scholarly Article About the Impact of Disease on Native Americans:

Indian Diseases As Aids to Pacific Northwest Settlement Oregon Historical Quarterly 1920s?

Without this desolation (disease) of the savages, settlement by ox-team pioneers would have been delayed one or two decades, and then would have encountered the protracted horrors of savage warfare. . . .

Therefore, one need not shed tears over the fate of the red man. The modern composers of tender songs and the writers of sobby fiction shed such tears-at so much per. . . The pioneer settlers and their honored memories are entitled to our respect and allegiance. The settlers solved their Indian problem in a practical way-be defending their own scalps, and subduing the enemy.

Always it will a source of thanksgiving that the destruction of the Indians of the Pacific Northwest by diseases spared the pioneer settlers the horrors of a strong and malignant foe.

An Anthropology Story:

When Women Wore Kilts in Oregon The Sunday Oregonian 6-24-34

In Any Event, the Costumes of the Coast Indian Were Very Odd, Indeed . . .

An Anthropology Story:

Puget Sound Indians Has Strange Customs Seattle Times 1-1-53

The early Puget Sound Indian would never work if there were clams for his klootchman. . . .[The only thing the male did not think below his dignity was fishing. In this he permitted no co-operation from his squaw. . .]

The klootchman became decrepit in appearance, bowed in form from her heavy labors and an unsociable as a black bear.

The squaw doted on loud colors and was obsessed with anything bright and showy. She aged early and, after her first 16 years, all traces of her feminine charm had passed.

A Weather Story:

Scalping Winds End Our Indian Summer Daily Olympian 10-21-63

Indian summer with its peaceful days is over. For the next few days, winds on the warpath will be moving through the area, ready to scalp anything with a poorly died down top

A Travel Story:

The Leaves are Red as War Paint Daily Olympian 9-20-64

A Sports Story:

Royals to Face Ambush Inclined Indians Seattle Times 10-7-65

The cardinals will seek their fourth straight win tomorrow night against Rentonís ambush-inclined Indians

A Picture Caption:

One Chief Talks, Another Listens Seattle Post-Intelligencer 3-4-64

Gov. Albert Rosellini, addressing a protest meeting of some 2,000 Indians and whites at the State Capitol yesterday, has an ardent listener in Chief Bob Satiacom of the Puyallup Tribe.

Headlines from the Fishing Rights Conflict

Headlines from the Fishing Rights Conflict

It is Indians vs U.S. Army Again

But this time the red man’s shots are legal documents, fired by a Seattle Attorney The Nisqually Indians and the Army are feuding again. There have been a skirmishes along the boundary between Fort Lewis and the Nisqually Reservation. –Seattle Times 4-13-58

Indians Crowd Longhouse, Plan War on White Man

The lamps in the longhouse burned late tonight in a Quinault Tribal Council meeting that probably will result in the banning of the white man from Lake Quinault. –Seattle Times 3-16-61

Indians Up In Arms Over Raid

Indians On Warpath to Save Fishing 1959?

Indian salmon fishermen went on the warpath, whiteman style, in legislative halls yesterday and converted House Joint Memorial 3 into a dead fish – they hope.

The memorial asks that Congress give the state jurisdiction over Indian fishing rights.

But a delegation of Indian fishermen held a powwow with the House Fisheries Committee. . . –Daily Olympian 1-9-62

Indians Seeing Red Over River Arrests –Daily Olympian 1-11-62

Indian Band Defies Game Department

It looks like more trouble along the Nisqually River. State Game Department officials were in a huddle Wednesday noon to decide what to do about a group of renegade redmen who have chosen to ignore state orders and net fish where they please along the river. –Daily Olympian 1-22-64

Renegade Rally-But No Fish-In Set For Nisqually

A renegade rally is planned Friday evening on the Nisqually River to commemorate the fish-in battle of a year ago between Indians and state agents. –Daily Olympian 3-9-64

The Plight of Our Indians: More Sinned Against Than Sinners –Seattle Post-Intelligencer 4-21-64

Puyallup Chief to Seek Teepee Full of Wampum

The hereditary chief of the Puyallup Indians wants $62 million from Washington state for himself, his children and his heirs the next thousand years for losses he contends they will suffer because of a state ban on off-reservation net fishing in the Puyallup River. –Daily Olympian 5-15-64

Battle of Teepee Heehee: Tacoma’s Boys in Blue Quash Indian Uprising

Five Indians were arrested here Tuesday – after a frantic chase down Tacoma Avenue – when they refused to take down a teepee they had erected on the front lawn of the County-City Building. -Daily Olympian 9-1-64

Indians Win Fight Over Fish

Although the Indian tribes of Washington State long ago abandoned the war path as a means of settling their differences with the white man, in reality they just moved indoors and substituted lawyers for warriors. –Seattle Post-Intelligencer 1-10-65

The Mis-Mass Brightened a Drab Day

The Indian invasion of Olympia turned out little more than a kind of maverick raid, but the few lonesome raiders did provide color to an otherwise drab day on the hill. –Daily Olympian 2-2-65

Indians Going on Warpath: Canoes to Start in Lake

Seven Indians will begin a two day demonstration on the east edge of Lake Union at noon today. They are going on the warpath. –Seattle Post-Intelligencer 3-29-65

From Tug O War to Threats – New Warfare Warms Up –Daily Olympian 9-3-65

Van Allen to the Rescue – Indians Cut Off Fish Officials At the River

Fifty whooping Indian men, women and children went on the warpath early Saturday along the Thurston side of the Nisqually River during a midnight raid by State Game Department officials on nets they said were illegally placed. -Daily Olympian 10-10-65

Nisqually Indians Hit Warpath Early Saturday

The smoldering feud between the Nisqually Indians and the state game department broke in to minor violence early Saturday morning on the Nisqually River. -Nisqually Valley News 11-14-65

Shades of the Little Big Horn – Game Agents, Indians Have a River Bank Bash

Fighting swirled along the banks of the Nisqually again Wednesday as state officials nipped a fish-in before a single salmon could be landed. -Daily Olympian 10-14-65

On the Capitol Warpath

Indians went on the warpath on Capitol Hill Monday afternoon, turned the Senate gallery into a battleground for half an hour and ended up rubbing buckskins with Thurston County juvenile authorities. -Daily Olympian 2-7-6

In the summer of 1968 a group of Native Americans and their supporters led by Janet McCloud pitched tents on the grounds of the state capitol to help bring attention to the problems of Native Americans. The following are some excerpts from an article about this:

Teepee & Tents: For As long as the sun shines . . . the Mountains Stand . . .?

Tuesday was a fine day for an interview. As we approached the Indian encampment at the corner of a tract which paleface squatters have nearly filled with Capitol buildings, the voice of Janet McCloud floated across the threadbare greensward. . .

Janet and the visiting newsmen were still wading around in the spilt milk of three centuries ago. Janet was also charging, in effect, that the white man is a locust upon the land; that he came to these shores a homeless serf and stayed in defiance of the Great Spirit, who had chosen this continent for the Indians.

Indians Seeing Red Over River Arrests

Indians Seeing Red Over River Arrests
Daily Olympian
January 11, 1962
by J.C. Walker

A new installment in the week’s collection of Thurston County Indian incidents Thursday began to take on the hue of a Hollywood melodrama. One more Indian was arrested Wednesday, making it a full half-dozen charged since the Game Department began its round of fish raids last week end. And it was reported the U.S. Army had taken a hand in keeping fish-catching Nisqually tribesmen off the Pierce County side of the boundary Nisqually River. This is flatly denied by the Army. It was Jack Simmons who was collected by Game Department agents Wednesday as he sat beside a riverbank landing with a load of fish. Agents served Simmons with a Pierce County Superior Court warrant charging him with operating a set net capable of taking game fish. Simmons later posted $100 bail in Tacoma and was released pending a hearing. Nisqually tribesmen Thursday were incensed, a feeling they’ve had all week. They say Simmons was doing nothing more than following his customary fishing rights Ð just like the five other Indians arrested last week end on similar charges. The Game Department holds a different viewpoint. Walter Neubrech, chief enforcement officer, said his men have amassed enough evidence over the last three weeks to sustain charge that Simmons caught steelhead along with dog salmon. Since steelhead is a game fish, the Game Department is concerned. As for Wednesday’s alleged incident involving the Army, no arrests were made, no arrests were contemplated, and the Army doesn’t want to get involved. The excitement apparently started when a retired lieutenant colonel, himself an angler, hitched a ride with an MP jeep along the river. The jeep was stopped by an Indian fisherman, who was looking for two nets reportedly cast adrift. The Army, knowing nothing, shrugged its shoulders, then drove on. As far as the military is concerned, treaty rights for fishing are respected unless Indians happen to wander into an area dangerous to life and limb. This is the only time they are stopped. Despite the trouble over arrests, the Nisqually Indians are sticking to their guns in maintaining they have a right to fish where they always have angled for the big, sea-run food fish nosing up the turgid waters of the Nisqually.

A Resource Divided


A Resource Divided – A review of the fishing rights issue as part of the Seattle Times Centennial Project

Reporting on the Indians: Indian Agents Comment

Introduction: The following selections were written by non-Indians who were reporting on the conditions found among the Native Americans of the South Puget Sound area after the establishment of the reservations in the 19th century. The following documents reflect a “non-native” view of the successes and failures of the reservation system. Read them, all the time remembering when they were written and that time period helped shaped the reporting.

These documents are contained in the “American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Digital Collection.”

Accessing the Collection:

1. Go to:

2. At the “Keyword Search within AIPNW” type one of the following names (i.e. Gosnell, Puyallup Agency, etc.) and hit “Go.” This will match the name with reports that the person wrote or reports about that group. In some cases your search will only yield one report. In other cases, however, your search will yield a number of reports from, say, the “Puyallup Agency,” so you will have to open each one and find the year you were looking for originally.

Reports Available

Report of W. B. Gosnell, agent for the Nisqually, Puyallup, and other Indians (1857) 4 pages Annual Report of the Nisqually, Puyallup, other Agencies (1874) 3 pages

Report of M. T. Simmons, agent for the Indians of Puget’s Sound district (1858) 13 pages Information with historical and statistical statements relative to the different tribes (1875) 2 pages

Report of W. B. Gosnell, special agent at Squaksin reserve (1858) 5 pages Report of Puyallup-Nisqually agency (1876) 6 pages

Report of Richard Lane, Teacher at Squaksin Reserve (1858) 3 pages Report of agent at Puyallup, Nisqually and other agencies (1877) 6 pages

Report of W. B. Gosnell, agent for the Squaksin, Nisqually, and Puyallup Indians(1859) 5 pages Report of Puyallup, Nisqually, other agencies (1878) 4 pages

Report of D. M. Mounts, farmer to the Puyallups (1859) 2 pages Report of Puyallup, Nisqually, Chehalis, other Agencies(1879) 5 pages

Report of E. R. Geary, superintendent (1860) 16 pages Report of Puyallup, Nisqually, Chehalis agent (1880) 5 pages

Report of D. M. Mounts, Nisqually farmer (1860) 1 page Report of Puyallup, Nisqually, Chehalis, etc. agent(1881) 6 pages

Report of W. B. Gosnell, Agent for the Squaksin, Nisqually and Puyallup Indians (1860) 4 pages Report of Puyallup, Nisqually, etc. agent (1882) 2 pages

Report of B. F. Kendall, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, W. T. (1862) 9 pages Report of Nisqually, S’kokomish agent (1883) 3 pages

Report of W. W. Miller, late superintendent (1861) 6 pages Report of Nisqually and S’Kokomish agent (1884) 2 pages

Report of W. L. Hays, Farmer (July 1862) 1 page Report of Nisqually and SKokomish agent (1885) 3 pages

Report of C. H. Hale, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory (1862) 17 pages Report of Nisqually, S’Kokomish agent (1886) 4 pages

Report of William L. Hays, Farmer (1863) 1 page Report of Nisqually, S’Kokomish agent (1887) 3 pages

Report of C. H. Hale, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Washington Territory (1863) 11 pages Report of Puyallup Agency(1888) 3 pages

Report of A. R. Elder, agent at Puyallup agency (1864) 4 pages Report of Puyallup Agency (1890) 3 pages

Report of William L. Hays, farmer at Nisqually reservation (1864) 2 pages Report of Puyallup Agency (1904) 4 pages

Report of A. R. Elder, Puyallup agency (1865) 3 pages Report of Puyallup Agency (1905) 2 pages

Annual report of R. H. Milroy, Washington Superintendency, Olympia, Washington Territory (1872) 18 pages Seattle and the Indians of Puget Sound (1908) 6 pages

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1872) 3 pages Puyallup Indian Reservation (1928) 4 pages

Annual report of Puyallup agency (1873) 2 pages The Defense of Seattle, 1856: “And Down Came the Indians” (1964) 6 pages (A review of the “Battle of Seattle” during the 1850’s conflict between Native peoples and settlers)