Teacher Test – 1900

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Some examination questions. The examination has been completed in reading, state school law, history, grammar, arithmetic, physiology, orthography and theory and practice.

*The following are some of the questions given in arithmetic:

1. A man walks across the diagonal of a lot 8 rods long and 6 rods wide,4 times a day instead of walking around the corner on the sidewalk. How much time does he save in a year of 300 days if he walks at the rate of 3 miles an hour?

2. A vessel can sail up stream at the rate of 8 miles an hour and downstream at the rate of 12 miles an hour. How far can it go down stream and up in 5 hours?

3. (a) Find the entire surface of a cylinder 10 inches long and 8 inches in diameter. (b) Find the number of cubic inches in the same cylinder.

4. What number subtracted 88 times from 80.005 will leave .013 as a remainder?

5. A pole was broken 52 feet from the bottom and it fell so that the end struck 39 feet from the foot. Required, the length of the pole.

Must know the law

*In school law the following are some of the questions asked:

1. To whom may petitioners appeal in case the county superintendent’s decision is not satisfctory to them? When must the appeal be made?

2. Has a teacher the power to suspend a pupil?

3. Name the legal holidays belonging to teacher and school.

4. Who adopts the textbooks for the state? How often may they be adopted?

5. How may a school district now adopt free textbooks?

6. What offices of the executive department may the legislature abolish?

*In grammar the applicant must answer, among ten questions, the following:

1. Illustrate by properly constructed sentences five uses of capital letters.

2. Give an example of a complex declarative sentence; of a complex interrogative sentence; of a complex imperative sentence.


3. Illustrate the use of a prepositional phrase; of an infinitive phrase; of an adjective clause; and of a clause used as the object of a verb.

4. Correct the following sentences, giving the reasons: (a) New York is larger than any city in America. (b) This opinion is becoming more universal. (c) He took it to be he.

Questions for Wagner

*In geography the following questions would worry Harr Wagner:

1. Define altitude, latitude, equator, meridian, climate.

2. Name five foreign ports with which Puget Sound has commercial relations.

3. Name the form of government and capital city of (a) England, (b) Brazil, (c) France, (d) Russia, and (e) Switzerland.

4. Name a state characterized by an abundant production of (a) rice, (b) wheat, (c) cotton, (d) sugar, (e) lumber, (f) coal, (g) copper, (h) tobacco, (i) hops, (j) oranges.

5. Sketch a map of Washington showing (a) the mountain ranges, (b) four largest cities, (c) two largest rivers, (d) two principal railroad lines, and (e) boundary.

6. On which waters would a traveler pass to go from Tacoma to Paris by water route?

7. Discuss the commercial importance of the Trans-Siberian railway.

District #13 – Yelm (1900-1920)

The school in Yelm had started as a log cabin, but was eventually replaced by a wood frame building. This structure was east of the major crossroads in Yelm. This school, in the 1890’s, became so crowded that some classes were held in the cloak room. Eventually the primary grades, first through fourth, were held at the home of Mrs. Anna Coates. A new school was constructed around 1899.

The Story of Yelm provides an account of this new school built at the site of the current Yelm Middle School (corner of Yelm Ave. and Edwards St.). Eventually, a new building was erected, but on the present site, which act caused some opposition in the town. This two room building was later enlarged to four, and the shop annex was used as a classroom before the new High School was created in 1920.

The school site may have been unpopular at the time because it was located beyond the railroad tracks in west end of town. This is, however, is mere speculation. This building served as the Yelm grade school until it burned down in 1932.

Every Picture Tells a Story

The opening decade of the 20th century provides our first visual glimpse of the school in Yelm. The first of these photos, later reprtined in the Nisqually Valley News, is from 1903. The caption locates the school at the original site east of the crossroads, which calls into question the memory of some informants that the school had moved by 1899. The teacher is identified as Miss Hart. The list of salaries for this era places an Annie C. Hartt at Yelm from September 1902 through March 1903. The door behind the students appears to be a single door, different from the double doors found in subsequent photos of the school. This, if true, would mean it was taken at the original school. The students in the picture appear to range from five or six to the mid teens.

The second photo is of grades 4-9 at what is certainly the school at the current middle school’s site. This photograph was found in the Yelm High Library and is identified as being from the 1908-09 school year, the first year in which a 9th grade classes was added. Notes with the photo state that Dan Cook, Alice Hughes, Vera Chambers, and Ruth Hawley were the first 9th grades taught at the school. The teachers in the picture are Miss Hattie Hawley and Miss Clara McKinzie [sic]. Salary records place both of those teachers in Yelm during the 1908-09 time frame. The photograph is labeled as being for grades 4 to 9. This would imply that there were other teachers for the primary grades. However, the students in the photo appear to range from young to high school, implying this is a photograph of more than grades 4-9. Records only record two teachers at the time.

This third picture from the decade is from the Yelm City Hall. It is identified as being from 1911. The teachers in this photo are identified as Miss Lillian Natrous and Mr. White. D.R. White and Lena Watrows (this could easily be Natrous) were indeed teaching in Yelm, he for $75 per month and Lena for $65 per month. Two thirds of the students appear to be female.

The Forest School

The Forest School was part of the Yelm School District by 1915. Located on the corner of 143rd SE and Vail Road the building still stands and is known as the Deschutes Grange. From this picture one can see the closed bell tower that was always part on the small schools of the era. Located where it is, the building may have been part of an earlier school district that was absorbed by Yelm. This picture of the Forest School, from Yelm Pioneers and Followers, 1850-1950, is from 1915. The teachers in the picture, Mr. Loren Peters and Miss Ruth Eide were on the Yelm school district payroll in 1915. Also in this picture are two of the three Chabert girls. They became educators. Not in the photo is their sister Rose, who also became a teacher. According to Joseph Conine, in a 1917 letter to his daughter Jennie Lind Edwards, “the Forest school is also looming up pretty well.” A “Miss Curry” was the principal and May Robinson was her assistant.

School Days

The first senior class was graduated in the old building and boasted four members, Helen Hettrick, Katie Hughes, Stanly Price and Haney La Blanc. This was in 1915. The second graduating class had but two members, Mary Eddy (Chown) and Frances King (Smith). J. C. Conine wrote in 1917 that there were 120 scholars attending the Yelm High School that year. (He must have meant 120 for the entire district) The new high school building was dedicated in 1920 (another source states 1917) with the first senior class graduating from in that year. This building burned in 1941.

Hazel Price passed the 8th grade state exam at Willow Lawn Grade School out of Yelm and entered Yelm High School the first year it was held in the grade School at Yelm, about the fall of 1910. She and May Robinson drove their old horse and buggy to school each day. There were only the first two grades of high school at Yelm for several years so if you wanted to continue you had to go to Olympia or Tacoma.

The Business of Education

In 1900, the Yelm School District was one of numerous schools districts in this area. The Board of Directors had placed a 1 mill levy to the vote of the district in 1901. In 1909, the school district estimated that they would be spending a little less than $1,500 for the coming year. Nearly four-fifths of his was for teacher salaries.

According to The Story of Yelm the following men served as district superintendents during this era:

1914-16 Mr. Fleenor

1916-17 Mr. Blounquist

1917-18 Mr. Fletcher

1918-21 Ernest Nichols

1921-25 Fred J. Brown

1925-32 J. R. Loutzenhiser

Men and women desiring to become teachers had two avenues to certification. One was an education at a normal school and the other was through testing. Teachers were governed by state rules and regulations. Many of the issues will seem familiar to teachers of the current era.

Education Around the County: 1889

Introduction:  The following are a series of articles related to education which appeared in the Washington Standard, published in Olympia.  During the second week in July, the average school teacher is expected to be abroad in Olympia.

Washington Standard

June 23, 1889


Teacher’s Institute

Mrs. P. C. Hale opened the exercises Wednesday, with an elaborate paper on her method of teaching geography. A general discussion of the subject took place.


Miss Janet Moore followed with an exhibition of the Pollard system of conducting primary reading classes, with blackboard illustrations, participated in by class of children from the Primary Department of the Central school.


Prof. M. G. Royal concluded them programme by a humorous essay on the various ways adopted by teachers in school recitations. As the gentleman sat down, he was greeted by a round of hearty applause. A short discussion followed, when the time for adjournment was announced.


In addition to the teachers already reported the following names were added to the roll: Miss Amy Case, Lou McGuire, Fannie McBride, Linnie Barnes, Flora Parsons, Miss L. E. Twiss, Bessie Isaacs, Miss M. B. Hawkins, Minnie Freeman, Eliza Stamps. Mr. J. M. Abbott, Miss Stella Tyler, Mrs. M. F. Brown, Mrs. J. G. Ward, Allen Weir, S. W. Womack, A. F. Gunn, H. N. Hunt, A. W. Peables, Harvey H. Loveridge and Robert Cruikshank.

Washington Standard

July 12, 1889



Board met in regular session , sitting as a Board of Equalization. Present, George B. Capen, Chairman, Thos. Prather and R. A. Brewer, Commissioners, and John P. Tweed clerk.


Minutes of previous meeting read a approved.


On motion, Board adjourned to 1:30 o’clock P.M.


1:30 O’CLOCK P.M.


Board reassembled, all present.


The report of L. P. Venen, County School Superintendent, upon the petition of R. H. Kandle, S. D. Lawrence, praying for the forming of a new school district, to known as School District 41, was presented and read, and after due consideration by Board, it is ordered that the decision of the Superintendent as reported be approved, and that School District 41 be established in accordance therewith.


On motion, Board adjourned to 9 o’clock tomorrow morning.

Washington Standard

August 9, 1889


Pupils of the various schools will have an opportunity to exchange their old books for new ones, next week, at O’Connor’s.

Washington Standard

August 30, 1889


Miss Amelia Dittmann, of this city, has been engaged to teach the Mud Bay district school, and commenced her labors last Monday.

Washington Standard

August 30, 1889

School Laws – Washington Standard April 15, 1876

Washington Standard April 15, 1876

We have heard a good deal of inquiry regarding the changes made in the Common School Laws, at the last session, so we publish the following two short laws, which comprise all the legislation on the subject that was perfectd.

The first is an amendment to the Common School law, passed, in 1873, and reads as follows:

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Washington, That section nine of chapter five or said act shall read as follows: “Districts having less than fifteen scholars between the ages of four and twenty-one years shall be exempt from the requirements of the three preceding sections, and may, by organizing and reporting to the superintendent according to law, draw their proportion of the school money without being required to comply with the provisions of the school law any farther than the said organization necessary reports and regular enumeration of children are concerned; and in such districts two legal voters shall be constitute a quorum to do business; and it shall be the duty of the clerk of such districts to let out all county school funds so received, at interest, for the use of the district, on good security, until such time as it may be required for school purposes in said district. The clerk of the district and his successor and securities shall also be responsible for such moneys.”

SECTION 2. It shall be the duty of the directors to appoint a place for holding all school meetings, and they may also appoint a clerk problem, in the absence of the clerk.

The second provides for levying a special school tax, as follows:

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Washington, That the legal voters of any school district in this Territory, may, once in each year, levy a special school tax for the support of common schools, not exceeding two mills on the dollar on the tax levy for the current year, by submitting the same to the voters of said school district at an election to be called for that purpose; Provided, a majority of said voters vote in the affirmative, and not otherwise; Provided, That the provisions of this act shall not apply to Columbia County.

$3,000,000 Claim is Heard

$3,000,000 Claim is Heard
Aged Puyallup Indians Testify They Were Tricked by Governor Stevens
Tacoma News Tribune
March 25, 1927
by Nelson R. Hong

In their fight to collect more than $3,000,000 from the federal government for violations of their rights, Indians of the Puyallup tribe, at a hearing which opened in Firwood Friday morning, unwound the traditions of their race, and retold, through documentary evidence and eyewitness testimony, the happenings at the Medicine Creek powwow which led to a treaty between them and Isaac I. Stevens, territorial governor, in December of 1854.

Three Indians, who where born so long ago that they have forgotten their ages, are on hand to tell what they remember of the proceedings at Medicine creek, about one and one half miles from the mouth of the Nisqually river, more than 72 years ago.

The three ancients are Wapato John and Tom Milroy of Nisqually and Lucy Slagham, who was born near Gig Harbor and has made her home in various sections of the Northwest.

Indians Say They Were Tricked

According to Puyallup valley Indians, these three are between 85 and 90 years old, They were reaching the age of responsibility when, with 750 other member of their tribe, they answered Gov. Stevens’ call for a conference. The conference led to a treaty, in which the Indians claim they were tricked by smooth talking and the superior intelligence of the white men.

The treaty was full of jokers which worked to deprive the natives of their land rights, it is charged. Since then the Indians, continually pushed in to the background by the advance of white men, have suffered on account of the unfair tactics of the government they charge.

Their allegations, which include bitter personal charges against the honesty and integrity of Gov. Stevens are made up of a score of counts. The main charges can be summed up as follows:

Charges Summarized

That the government failed to provide sufficient property for the Puyallup Indians.

That the government failed to live up to its promise of establishing and maintaining an industrial and agricultural school.

That the provision in the treaty, which the Indians believed gave them a permanent right to fish, contained a joker which rendered the supposed stipulation powerless.

The government, the Indians claim, should have acquired a large tract of fertile land near Everett for the use of the Puyallup tribe.

The case of the tribe is being handled by Arthur E. Richards, also of Seattle, who is commissioner of the United States Court of Claims.

Must Wait for Decision

The testimony being taken Friday from witnesses and by reference to state and national documents, will be sent to Washington, DC, for final action. It is expected that the decision on the claim will not be made for at least five years.

Indians at the hearing are particularly bitter toward Gov. Stevens. Wapato John, whose age and infirmities, make both walking and talking difficult , when asked for a statement on the Medicine Creek meet said: “Gov. Stevens no good. Him big liar.”

Tom Milroy, the oldest of the trio of survivors of the now historic “powwow,” is badly bent by age and his eyesight is so bad that he needs assistance whenever he walks. Even under the pressure of an Indian interpreter, before the hearing began, no amount of persuasion could force him to make a statement. The interpreter said that Milroy was saving his energy for the hearing.

Prominent in Indian Councils

Although neither Wapato John nor Milroy has been head of the tribe, they are and have been for more than 50 years prominent in the counsels of the council. They also are members of the Nisqually Northwest tribe.

The woman, in addition to her membership in the Puyallup tribe, belongs to the Gig Harbor Indians and other Indian organizations. She is estimated to be about 85 years old, and probably is the youngest of the trio. She was a girl of 13 or 14 when she attended the Medicine Creek meeting with her parents.

The Medicine Creek treaty, which the Indians claim was so unfair to them is held directly responsible for the bitter Indian war, led against the whites by Chief Leschi, famous Nisqually leader.

They claim that the great majority of the Indians present at the treaty making did not realize the intent of the document. They approved it, but Chief Leschi refused to make his mark opposite his name. He left the treaty ground in a rage, and died on the scaffold with intense hatred in his heart against the whites.After the treaty was put into effect, Chief Leschi opened relentless warfare against the whites. They considered his warfare nothing but murder, and, after capturing him, hanged him on the plains a short distance west of present outlet of Steilacoom lake.

It’s Indians vs. U.S. Army Again

But this time the red men’s ‘shots’ are legal documents, fired by a Seattle Attorney.